HENRY MIDDLETON was born in London, England to the colonial governor of South Carolina, who later signed the Declaration of Independence. He was privately tutored in England and inherited Middleton Place, the family plantation, upon his father’s death. Middleton served in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1802 to 1810 and in the South Carolina Senate in 1810 prior to his election as governor. During his gubernatorial administration, a free school system was established. In addition, with demand for war against Great Britain growing, South Carolina sent three “hawks” to Washington, among them John C. Calhoun, who wrote the final bill declaring the opening of hostilities. After leaving office, Middleton served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1815 to 1819, was U.S. Minister to Russia from 1820 to 1830, and became a leader of the Union Party of South Carolina during the nullification controversy of the 1830s, when opponents of trade tariffs that had been imposed by the federal government advocated nullifying federal law.
Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. 4. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978. 4 vols.
The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 12. New York: James T. White & Company.
Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress