GEORGE MICHAEL TROUP was born in McIntosh Bluff on the Tombigbee River, Alabama (then part of Georgia), on September 8, 1780. He was educated in a New York academy and graduated from Princeton University in 1797. He studied law in Svannah, was admitted to the bar in 1800, and established a legal practice. Troup entered politics in 1801 as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, a position he held until 1804. He also served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1807 to 1815, and was a member of the U.S. Senate from 1816 to 1818. He ran unsuccessfully against John Clark for the governor’s office in 1819 and 1821; however, he was victorious two years later and became Georgia’s 16th governor. He won reelection in 1823, becoming the first governor elected by popular vote. During his tenure, he advocated for internal programs and endorsed states’ rights. At his insistence, the federal government met the terms of agreement decided when Georgia ceded her western territory to the United States governrment in 1802. Treaty negotiations with the Creek Indians were initiated, allowing for the removal of the Creeks from the state and authorizing white settlers to make use of their land. During his administration, Troup attempted to further education and to improve various methods of transportation. Unfortunately, he was unable to convince the legislature to support his programs. After leaving office, he served again in the U.S. Senate from 1829 to 1833. He retired in 1833 because of poor health and spent his remaining years running his numerous plantations. Governor George M. Troup died on April 26, 1856, and is buried on his Rosemont plantation in Montgomery (now Treutlen) County. A county bordering on the state of Alabama is named in his honor.
Cook, James F. Governors of Georgia, 1754-2004. 3d ed. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2005.
Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. 1, Westport, Conn.; Meckler Books, 1978. 4 vols.